Illustration of a Fox Squirrel, also known as Sciurus niger. The squirrel is seated on a rugged tree branch, with its bushy tail curled upwards. The fur is dense and variegated, with hues of burnt umber, russet, and cream. Its ears are sharp and expressive, and it's holding an unbranded acorn in its small paws. The background features a sylvan scene with dense, leafy trees devoid of human presence. Ensure no brand logos or text appear within the image.

Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger)

Written By: Ian @ World Deer

Introduction to the Fox Squirrel

**The Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger) is the largest species of tree squirrel native to North America.** Their considerable size, combined with their unique and attractive fur coloration, makes them a notable presence in their habitats.

Understanding these fascinating creatures involves delving into various aspects of their lives, ranging from their physical characteristics to their behavior and habitat. Whether you’re a wildlife enthusiast or simply curious about the diverse species that inhabit North America, the Fox Squirrel offers plenty to learn about.

Physical Characteristics

Fox Squirrels are known for their large size compared to other squirrel species.

Males and females are similar in size, both reaching up to 17 to 27 inches in length, including their bushy tails, which add another 8 to 13 inches.

They typically weigh between 1.3 to 2.8 pounds.

Their fur can vary significantly, exhibiting a range of colors from rusty orange to gray and even a mix of both.

The orange color is particularly prominent on the belly, legs, and lower sides.

In contrast, their backs and tails can sometimes appear grayer.

Some Fox Squirrels are almost entirely black due to certain genetic variations.


Fox Squirrels are adaptable creatures found in a variety of habitats across North America.

Their range extends from the eastern United States to the Great Plains and into northern Mexico.

They prefer environments with a mix of open spaces and wooded areas.

This adaptability allows them to thrive in forest edges, deciduous forests, and even urban parks.

Fox Squirrels prefer habitats with ample mast-producing trees like oaks and hickories.

This provides a steady food supply, particularly during the fall and winter months.

They build nests, called dreys, high up in trees, often using large tree cavities when available.

In urban areas, they may also exploit buildings and other structures for shelter.


The diet of a Fox Squirrel is as varied as their habitat preferences.

They are omnivorous, meaning they eat both plant and animal matter.

Primarily, their diet consists of nuts, seeds, and fruits from a variety of trees.

Common food sources include acorns, walnuts, hickory nuts, and osage-orange seeds.

During the spring and summer, they consume flowers, buds, and fungi.

They will also eat insects, bird eggs, and even small vertebrates when other food is scarce.

Like other squirrels, they store food for the winter months by burying nuts in the ground.

This behavior not only helps them survive the winter but also plays a crucial role in seed dispersion.

Reproduction and Lifespan

Fox Squirrels typically mate twice a year, once in the late winter and again in the early summer.

The gestation period lasts about 44 to 45 days.

Females usually give birth to two to four offspring, though larger litters are not uncommon.

The young are born blind and helpless, weighing only about 0.5 to 1 ounce.

They remain in the nest for the first few weeks of life, depending entirely on their mother for warmth and nourishment.

Juveniles begin to venture out of the nest around 7 to 8 weeks old and are weaned by 10 to 12 weeks.

Their lifespan in the wild averages about 8 to 12 years, though many do not survive past their first year due to predation and other factors.


Fox Squirrels are diurnal animals, meaning they are active during the day and rest at night.

They are solitary creatures except during the breeding season or when mothers are raising their young.

Fox Squirrels communicate using a series of vocalizations, tail movements, and scent markings.

These signals help them establish territory, warn of predators, and coordinate during mating.

They are also known for their playful behavior, often seen chasing each other through the trees or across open fields.

Even though they are primarily arboreal, spending most of their time in trees, they also spend a significant amount of time on the ground.

This behavior is especially noticeable when foraging for food.

Predators and Threats

Fox Squirrels face a variety of predators throughout their range.

Common predators include birds of prey such as hawks and owls, as well as mammals like foxes, coyotes, and domestic pets.

Young squirrels are particularly vulnerable to predation during their first year of life.

Besides natural predators, Fox Squirrels also face threats from human activities.

Habitat destruction due to urbanization and agricultural expansion reduces their available living spaces.

Additionally, they are often victims of vehicle collisions in urban areas.

Conservation Status

The overall population of Fox Squirrels is considered stable, and they are not currently listed as endangered.

However, regional populations in certain areas may be at risk due to habitat fragmentation and loss.

Conservation efforts focus on preserving and restoring their natural habitats.

This includes planting native trees, creating wildlife corridors, and implementing measures to reduce vehicle collisions.

Interaction with Humans

Fox Squirrels have a complex relationship with humans.

On one hand, they are considered pests in some urban areas due to their tendency to raid bird feeders and dig up gardens.

They can also cause damage to structures when nesting in buildings.

On the other hand, they are a beloved presence in parks and neighborhoods, delighting people with their antics and affable nature.

For those interested in observing or coexisting with Fox Squirrels, providing food sources like squirrel feeders and planting native trees can be beneficial.

It’s essential to avoid feeding them human food, as this can harm their health.

Fox Squirrel vs. Gray Squirrel: What’s the Difference?

Fox Squirrels are often confused with the common Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), but there are notable differences between the two species.

Size is one of the most significant differences, with Fox Squirrels being larger and more robust.

Their fur color also varies, with Fox Squirrels displaying more orange and rusty hues, while Gray Squirrels are predominantly gray with some white patches.

The behaviors and habitats of the two species overlap, but Gray Squirrels tend to prefer denser forests and urban areas compared to the more open spaces favored by Fox Squirrels.

Fox Squirrels in the Ecosystem

Fox Squirrels play a vital role in their ecosystems.

As seed dispersers, they contribute to forest regeneration and biodiversity.

By burying nuts and seeds, they help propagate various tree species, supporting forest health and structure.

They are also prey for many predators, making them an integral part of the food web.

Frequently Asked Questions About Fox Squirrels

What do Fox Squirrels eat?

Fox Squirrels primarily eat nuts, seeds, and fruits, but they are also known to consume insects, bird eggs, and small vertebrates.

Where do Fox Squirrels live?

Fox Squirrels are found in various habitats across North America, including forest edges, deciduous forests, and urban parks.

How long do Fox Squirrels live?

In the wild, Fox Squirrels typically live about 8 to 12 years, though many do not survive past their first year.

Are Fox Squirrels endangered?

Overall, Fox Squirrel populations are considered stable, and they are not currently listed as endangered.

How do Fox Squirrels communicate?

Fox Squirrels use vocalizations, tail movements, and scent markings to communicate with each other.

Can Fox Squirrels be found in urban areas?

Yes, Fox Squirrels are often found in urban areas, where they adapt to parks, gardens, and even buildings for nesting and foraging.

Do Fox Squirrels store food for winter?

Yes, Fox Squirrels store food by burying nuts and seeds to ensure they have a food supply during the winter months.

Fox Squirrels are a fascinating species with a unique set of behaviors and characteristics.

By learning more about them, we can better appreciate their role in the ecosystem and find ways to coexist with them more harmoniously.

How to Attract Fox Squirrels to Your Yard

If you’re interested in observing Fox Squirrels up close, there are several ways to attract them to your yard.

Providing a reliable food source is one of the most effective methods.

Squirrel feeders stocked with nuts, seeds, and fruits can entice them to visit regularly.

It’s also beneficial to plant native trees and shrubs that produce their preferred foods, like oaks, hickories, and walnuts.

Ensuring access to fresh water through bird baths or small ponds can further encourage their presence.

Setting Up a Squirrel Feeder

To set up a squirrel feeder, select a location in your yard that’s high off the ground, like a sturdy tree branch or post.

Choose a feeder that is durable and designed specifically for squirrels, as they can be quite resourceful in accessing food.

A squirrel-proof feeder can also help if you’re trying to limit other wildlife like birds or raccoons from getting to the food.

Fill the feeder with a mix of nuts, seeds, and dried fruits.

Check the feeder regularly to ensure it remains clean and well-stocked.

The Role of Fox Squirrels in Seed Dispersion

Fox Squirrels play a crucial role in their ecosystems through seed dispersion.

By burying nuts and seeds, they help propagate various tree species.

While they may not recover every buried seed, the uneaten seeds can germinate and grow into new trees.

This process supports forest regeneration and biodiversity, ensuring healthy and resilient ecosystems.

Predators and Defense Mechanisms

Despite their size, Fox Squirrels are prey to a variety of predators.

Birds of prey like hawks and owls are common threats, as are mammals such as foxes and coyotes.

To deter predators, Fox Squirrels rely on their agility and keen senses.

Their sharp vision and hearing allow them to detect danger and flee quickly by leaping from branch to branch.

They also use vocalizations to warn others of nearby threats.

Fox Squirrels and Urban Wildlife

In urban areas, Fox Squirrels adapt remarkably well to the presence of humans.

They often make their homes in parks, gardens, and even buildings.

While they can sometimes be considered pests, many people enjoy watching their lively antics.

To coexist peacefully, keep human food out of reach and maintain a clean yard to discourage them from nesting in unwanted areas.

Hunting Regulations for Fox Squirrels

If you’re a hunter interested in pursuing Fox Squirrels, it’s essential to familiarize yourself with the local regulations.

Hunting seasons and bag limits vary by state, so check with your state’s wildlife agency for specific guidelines.

In general, you’ll need a small game hunting license to hunt Fox Squirrels.

Using ethical hunting practices ensures the sustainability of their populations and the ecosystems they inhabit.

Squirrel-Proofing Your Garden

If Fox Squirrels are causing trouble in your garden, there are several measures you can take to keep them at bay.

One effective strategy is to use physical barriers like fencing or netting around vulnerable plants.

Repellents, both commercial and homemade, can also deter squirrels from digging up bulbs or raiding your vegetable patches.

Another option is to provide them with an alternative food source, like a squirrel feeder, which can help redirect their attention away from your garden.

Differences Between Fox Squirrels and Gray Squirrels

While Fox Squirrels and Gray Squirrels share many similarities, there are several key differences between them.

Fox Squirrels are generally larger, with a more robust build and a wider range of fur colors, including rusty orange and gray.

Gray Squirrels are predominantly gray with some white patches and are smaller in size.

Their habitats can overlap, but Gray Squirrels tend to prefer denser forests and urban areas compared to the more open spaces favored by Fox Squirrels.

Frequently Asked Questions About Fox Squirrels

How do Fox Squirrels help forests?

Fox Squirrels contribute to forest health by burying nuts and seeds, which helps with seed dispersion and forest regeneration.

What should I feed Fox Squirrels in my yard?

Fox Squirrels enjoy a variety of nuts, seeds, and fruits. Stocking a squirrel feeder with these items can attract them to your yard.

Are Fox Squirrels aggressive towards humans?

Fox Squirrels are generally not aggressive towards humans but they can become bold if they become used to being fed by people.

How can I protect my garden from Fox Squirrels?

Use physical barriers like fencing or netting and consider using repellents to keep Fox Squirrels away from your garden.

What is the average size of a Fox Squirrel?

Fox Squirrels range from 17 to 27 inches in length, including their tails, and weigh between 1.3 to 2.8 pounds.

Why are Fox Squirrels important in ecosystems?

Fox Squirrels play a vital role in seed dispersion, which helps with forest regeneration and supports biodiversity.

Can Fox Squirrels be found in city parks?

Yes, Fox Squirrels often adapt to urban environments and can be found in city parks and gardens.

How do Fox Squirrels defend themselves against predators?

Fox Squirrels use their agility, sharp senses, and vocalizations to detect and deter predators.

Fox Squirrels are a fascinating and important part of the wildlife community.

Understanding their habits and contributions to the ecosystem can help us coexist with them more harmoniously.

Picture of By: Ian from World Deer

By: Ian from World Deer

A passionate writer for WorldDeer using the most recent data on all animals with a keen focus on deer species.

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